Modèle:ConsultCE2014:Compulsory registration or copyright 2.0
12. Compulsory registration or copyright 2.0
At the other extreme of the infrastructure, one finds the legal foundations of copyright (or the economic rights part of author rights). Renowned legal scholars in many countries have searched for limited modifications that could correct the main perverse effects of the present framework:
- the captation of copyright benefits by players who do not contribute to future creative activity (heirs, managers of stock of copyright, those assignees who have little consideration for the rights of authors and artists),
- the multiplication of orphan and out-of-publication works,
- the scarcity and weakness of the public domain for some media, and limitations to its accessibility and its use.
Part of these efforts converged on a proposal for rendering the benefit of the economic rights part of copyright dependent on a compulsory registration of works by their authors. This registration would be valid for a reconducible limited period (a few years). This proposals faces some difficulties: its requires a modification to the Bern convention and may be rejected by digital authors who are littled inclined to formalities. The commercial exploitation and in some cases reproprietarization of their works would become possible when they abstain to register them.
With a focus more directly connected to the digital world, Marco Ricolfi proposed a copyright 2.0 model, according to which works would be placed by default under a regime similar to a Creative Commons licence, except when their author would opt for the classical model of copyright. To prevent the risk mentioned above of undesired commercial exploitaiton or possible reappropriation, the licence could be of the By-NC ou by-NC-SA type, permitting reuse, but submitting commercial exploitation to an authorization. Both approaches (limited duration registration and copyright 2.0) can be combined, as suggested by Marco Ricolfi himself. The adoption of copyright 2.0 would not dispense from the recognition of non-market sharing of digital works between individuals (cf. point 1.) as this right can not depend on the will of a particular author, it is a direct consequence of the fact of having published a work in the digital sphere. However, copyright 2.0 would provide an elegant solution for remix rights (fair use type of rights such as quotation, parody, etc. remaining of course applicable even in the case of opting for the classic copyright).